3rd June, 2018

Another busy week in terms of learning this week, which involved a birthday party and two family visits:

Play / Social: We visited our favourite social group as usual and W played with four friends in the sunshine.

The grandparents also visited for a while, so the children enjoyed lots of imaginative play with Grandma.

And then, more family: the children’s cousins, who are 13 and 9, came to visit later in the week.  W loved playing with them and the children all get on very well together. We went to the park, fed the ducks and squirrels together and also played silly games there.

The next day, it was time for a birthday party for both D and J’s friends. The children had a great time there and W played with four children that she knows well, on the bouncy castle.

Spatial Skills: At the social meet, W enjoyed completing a puzzle where she needed to fit geometric shapes into a pattern.

When the grandparents visited, W got the chance to watch me and her grandfather build a wooden step for the garden. She was very interested in how it was put together, and even helped us for a while.

Later in the week, the Play-Doh came out, which was surprising as W has shown little interest in it lately. However, she was very keen to make cupcakes and various creations out of it this time. It was actually great to see how differently she plays with it now, compared to when she was tiny.

W spend a lot of time with me in the mornings (before the others got up) building the Lego Disney Castle, which is a Lego set for age 16+. It is a huge set and very difficult to put together, but W needed minimal help, possibly because she builds Lego so much already. I must say here that this was not our Lego set – it is far too expensive for us – we were putting it together for the purposes of a photograph later in the week…. A great educational opportunity!

Literacy / English: On our train journeys, W attempted to read the train signs, as usual. She also read all the tickets that we had collected from the station for our forthcoming journeys. She wanted to know the seat number and carriage for each one and I let her go through all the tickets (there were loads- I like to book in advance…) to check all of them.

The Local Authority sent us a form to fill in about W’s education (more about this in a later blog – coming soon), so W answered a couple of questions that were relevant to her and also drew a picture for the EHE officer.

While Grandma was here, W did a little writing and drew some pictures to show to her.

One of the cousins read stories to W and then also made up stories for her. W loves it when her cousin does this as she is very skilled at story telling. Although W was mainly listening to the stories and not telling them herself, it is a very important part of learning for her to be able to understand what makes a good story and why.

I read W’s new Great Women of the World book, which she really loved and seemed to remember details from the book a few days later.

History: At bedtime (I’m sure she was stalling…), W asked lots of questions about royalty and how Kings and Queens become so. She asked about our current Queen and about how many children she has and their titles and status. She also asked about previous Kings and Queens and royalty in other countries. We looked up a list of them online and she was very interested in the fact that the members of the royal family have historically married members of other royal families (or the same one….).

On a train journey, W wanted to know how trains can move onto different train tracks and go in different directions, so we looked at videos of train points on Youtube, which she enjoyed. She learned about how points were operated historically, compared to now.

Science / Nature: One evening, W enjoyed telling us all that she has learned about bees recently. She showed us how much she had remembered by describing how bees are kept and looked after, what different types of bees there are, how bees swarm and why etc etc.

We also observed a bumble bee when we were travelling to our social group. The bee was busy on a flower and calm, so we were able to have a good look at it, noting it’s different features.

W asked if there were any black flowers in the world, so we learned a bit about black tulips and how they get their colour. W is also learning a lot of flower names and types through her Nan, who is a keen gardener, and also from my partner, who is working on a ‘flower a day’ project at the moment.

W’s grandparents left a Nature workbook for her when they said goodbye, and W enjoyed completing a few pages of that on a later train journey.

At the birthday party, the children had the opportunity to make ice cream with liquid nitrogen, which W thought was amazing. The man helping the children to make the ice cream explained the properties of liquid nitrogen and described the process of the ingredients turning into ice cream too. It became a science lesson for them and it was also a really fun thing to do at a party, I must say.

Also at the party, W learned about generators and how they work, because the bouncy castle generator needed fixing while we were there. We watched people fixing it, filling it with petrol and starting it again.

Then there was a boat race. The children put together boats, which had been made on a 3D printer, and had the chance to make sails. We then put the boats in the water for a race.  During this, W asked why a boat would go slower if its sail got wet and also why it needs a sail at all.

W learned a lot about climate change one morning as D asked a question about it and so W started to ask questions about it too. We covered Solar Power, Elon Musk (!) and fossil fuels too. Obviously, we need to touch on this subject again many times in the future as it is such a big subject, but it is good to give the children a basic understanding to build on later.

Board games:  W played Monopoly Junior with D and one of the cousins, and had a great time doing so.

Politics: W asked why there were red posters on our street, so I took the opportunity to teach her about elections. She is very interested in how democracy works and why some people would vote for someone who doesn’t want everyone to have equal rights. It was a difficult thing to explain as I’m not really sure why someone would do such a thing myself….. As with climate change, this is another example of a subject that needs further exploration at a later date, as there are so many layers of different issues involved, that it is impossible to cover it all at once.

So, watch this space…. I’m sure you will read here about many more discussions on the big issues of the world over the years to come….

20th May – a holiday

This week, W was lucky enough to go on a holiday. Obviously, there was no structured learning while on a break, but of course learning happens organically every day, without effort on our part. I just love that, even if we have no plans for specific educational activities in a particular week, learning will happen anyway, whether we want it to or not…

So, in order of subjects, this is the breakdown of W’s education for the last seven days:

Maths / Numeracy: W worked on her new pull-the-tab Counting Book. She went through the flashcards, which had questions like: are there more bees or more flowers in the picture? She was really engaged and loved counting everything. She also went through the other flashcards and read the numbers up to twenty. On other flashcards, she was asked which number was missing in a sequence and got all of them right.

On the addition pages, she had a good go at adding numbers under 10 together and loved it when she pulled the tab and had got the answer right.

I must say at this point that I try to not focus on whether W gets the answer right or not. I feel it is important to praise (or at least encourage gently) the effort that is put in, rather than the result. There was a very interesting study on this subject by Dr. Carol Dweck of Stanford University. In it, she found that students who had been praised for intelligence performed worse than those praised for effort. The psychological reasons behind the findings are detailed here.

 Literacy / English: W read the book The Big Carrot from the Oxford Reading Tree.

Science / Nature: We planted some wildflower seeds in the garden, so learned about germination and what a plant needs to grow. We also pulled up some old daffodils to store for next year, providing an opportunity to learn about the difference between bulbs and seeds.

W then spent time investigating what happens to chalk marks when you pour water on them. She realised that chalk could be washed off the bricks or ground, so she then tried wetting the chalks themselves and saw that the chalk marks were much brighter when the chalk was wet.

Then W decided to get a bucket of water and a paintbrush to paint the brickwork of the garden wall. She saw that is was darker when wet and lighter when dry. Her and D had a lot of fun spraying water and washing pebbles etc, noting what happens to different kinds of rocks when wet.

Play: W spent time indoors playing with D, which included lots of role play with her Lego minifigures and her dolls.

When we were travelling on the train, W and I played some more with her dolls, which I’m sure the other travellers enjoyed listening to…..

Geography:  In the car W had a go at interpreting road signs, and also learned what the lines on the road mean.

W also read the map of the holiday site, finding our lodge by herself and also spent time reading signs and finding numbers everywhere.

PE / Play: There were little log barriers all over the site, and W enjoyed balancing on these wherever she went.

She also played for hours in the playgrounds and parks with other children, having lots of fun!

There was a pool on site and W spent many happy hours playing generally, but also learning to swim as she did so.

…And then it was time to come home. However, there was no feeling of dread for going to school on Monday morning. We will simply go back to our usual learning through play, through our regular fun activities and basically being led by W in terms of her education. On days like these, at the end of a holiday, I am especially grateful for the path that I have chosen for W.

13th May 2018 – illness strikes

A lot of this week was taken up by watching TV and sleeping as W was ill with a bug for a few days.

I have noticed that W gets ill a lot less than her peers who go to school. I wonder, is this a good thing or a bad thing? Does being ill a lot and catching all the bugs in an institution such as a school make her immune system stronger, or is she better off not being ill all the time because that is simply a healthier way of being? Does she ‘need’ all these bugs to strengthen her immune system, or was it ‘good enough’ for her to be breastfed for 3 and a half years and to receive antibodies that way, instead of from illness? I suppose I’ll never know, but I do know that it is awful seeing her ill and life is much better when my children are well and happy.

So, this is W’s somewhat limited learning for the week, categorised by subject:

History / Politics: We watched a children’s documentary at W’s request, on King Charles I, parliament, the tower of London, the Houses of Parliament and the House of Lords. Then another on lots of subjects, such as the suffragettes, how Big Ben was made and transported to the top of the Elizabeth tower, how the clock is maintained, and where all acts of parliament are stored (on parchment).

Play: When W was feeling a little better, she had lots of imaginative play with her Shopkins, Magiclip Dolls, Playmobil Farm and with her Lego too. At one point when she was feeling very under the weather, she said she thought that her toys must be missing her and that she couldn’t wait to play with them, so it was lovely to see her giving them some attention again!

Literacy: W watched a fair bit of CBeebies and learned about Homer’s ‘the Odyssey’. She also watched Number Blocks, which she loves and even managed to shout the answers to problems at the TV.

Before the sickness bug struck, we played Monopoly Junior, during which W read some of the words on the ‘chance’ cards, added simple numbers together to pay rent on properties and generally did very well at the game.

We also visited the library this week and W chose some chapter books for bedtime stories.

On a journey through London, W helped to find the right platforms on the display boards, as she likes to do…. and then as we were on the train, W said she would like to find out more about how very tall buildings are made, so we sill look at that shortly.

Play /Social: When W was feeling up to it, there was a lot of imaginative play for W and D together, and also with a friend who came to play.

We went to visit the grandparents for a day and, as always, W had a great time playing silly games with them.

We also had some time at the park for some energetic play.

Science / Nature: At the park, we identified flowers and trees together.

W’s Grandfather was fixing a computer when we visited him, so he taught her about computer circuit boards. She was allowed to play with a computer fan and learned the difference between a large desktop computer motherboard, a small one and one that is designed for a laptop. She learned that the lines in the board were tiny wires and that the small PCBs had four layers in so that they could fit more wires into the space.

She learned why fans are needed for the computer processor and also learned a little bit about how computers are repaired and put together, and what tools are needed to do so.

I got a free printable resource which shows how a seed develops into a tree, so we looked at that together for a while.

When W wasn’t feeling well, she watched her favourite pet- and vet-themed programs on TV and learned about animal care and treatment.

Geography: W asked many questions about London, including its size and population. She then wanted to know which city in the world had the most people living in it. It turns out that it is Tokyo with almost 38m people. Delhi and Shanghai were next. She was fascinated by this and asked about where in the world these cities were. We looked at our giant atlas to find out and then learned some facts about Japan online. W liked the fact that Japan is similar to the UK in terms of size and population overall.

Numeracy: W has discovered dot-to-dot puzzles, which are great for enabling her to learn large numbers, and also great for pen control.

Art: W drew a picture of me and also a picture of herself at the beach. Both were great and were put up on display.

In fact, almost all drawings that W does are put up on display for a while – a tip that I got from the fabulous book by Lori McWilliam Pickert: Project-Based Home Schooling. I really recommend this book if you are new to home education, or if you want to know more about project-based learning. It has some brilliant ideas and strategies for us to be able to facilitate our children’s learning without getting in the way of it by being too prescriptive ourselves.

6th May

W’s education this week seemed to take the form of her explaining things to me that she has learned over the last few weeks. This really helps to ‘solidify’ her learning and I can add in any bits that I think she has missed. She loves to explain things to me (probably because she is tired of me constantly telling her things……) instead of just listening to my voice all the time.

So here is what we did this week, in order of subject:

Nature / Biology: W explained to me how bees use their 5 eyes to see and then went on to explain the differences between insects and spiders. This is something she picked up on a TV program ages ago, but had remembered those facts from it.

W later told me how some baby fish hide from predators in their mothers’ mouth. She wanted to know how baby fish are made – we discussed this and looked for clips on Youtube. She also described the blue whale and then explained how big it is.

We played at vets with her toys and within the game she told me all about blood tests and what they are for. She knows a little about blood cells and this was all incorporated into our game.

W has also been learning the names of different plants and flowers, when we are out and about. She can recognise quite a few now, which is impressive since I know very little about flowers…

We learned about how wheat is milled with an educational resource that I had from a while ago. It has packets of wheat from various different points of the milling process and it explains what happens to is and what each different part is used for.

Literacy / English: We got W’s activity books and magazines out and she did quite a few pages of colouring-in, spot the difference, copying pictures, stickering and writing practise.

Also, we again categorised some of her Shopkins toys (this time into ‘seasons’) and she wrote labels for each section.

Maths: On the train to a park, we did some mental arithmetic (she was giving me sums to do, then working out the answer herself), which W worked out in her own way. For some questions, she counted on her fingers, but for others, she seemed to just know the answer.

On another day, W bought a couple of new toys with her pocket money (more about pocket money here) and added up how much money she had for them, to work out if she had enough.

We later watched a few episodes of the number show from Alphablocks, on CBeebies together.

PE: At swimming, W swam on her back this time and generally played a lot in the pool.

Politics: I took W with me to vote in the local election, where we talked about the political parties, government, what they do and how they are funded. This is something W is really interested. In the past, she has asked lots of questions on democracy and why people vote differently from each other. I’m sure we will expand on this a lot as she grows up.

Play: W, D and J played a long imaginative game, where all of their soft toys went camping.  They packed lots of items for the toys and brought them downstairs in suitcases, then put up the tent and played at camping with them. It was great to see them playing together so well and collaborating well on what should happen next in the game.

Although this seems like a lot of learning now that I have written it down, this was definitely one of our ‘quiet’ weeks. However, it goes to show that, whether I am actively ‘teaching’ Willow or not, she is learning all the time of her own accord. I see that my role here is to facilitate her learning and to be guided by her. She will learn what she is ready to learn, when she needs to learn it. I am so struck by the fact that she is so eager to absorb information and facts, without me instigating it. When I first found out about home education (when I was pregnant with W), I thought it would involve much more guidance from me. I must say that I did think W would want to do nothing all day if I let her. As she grew, she showed me that she was always learning and that what I needed to do was to simply observe and to provide opportunities for learning. The rest is down to her. And she is doing brilliantly.

22 April 2018 – co-operation

One of the things that W loves to do is to collect the post in the morning and separate the letters into piles according to who they are for. With 5 members of our household, it is a great opportunity for literacy learning. I love the way that learning just happens as we move through life and skills are gathered and improved upon with little effort on my part, really.

Another example of this is when we passed a brick wall and W commented to me that she wondered how many bricks there were in the wall, and set about trying to work it out. We stayed a while by that wall, talking about multiplication and trying to add it up in our heads. To her, it was a bit of fun; to me, a great opportunity.

When we finally reached the train station, W had a go at reading the screens and finding the correct platform and seat etc.

Of course, we could only do this as we weren’t in a hurry that day. Sometimes it just isn’t possible to stop for a while, but I try to do it whenever we can.

Our destination was a meet up for home educated children at a park. W played with the other children and adults there and then also played with some equipment where she had to pour sand onto different levels of it. W was trying to figure out how heavy the sand had to be before it tipped onto a lower level.

On a different day this week, W wanted to help me with my work, cutting out labels for customers and opening my parcels. For her, this is great fun. She likes to see what stock has come in. I suppose it is like opening presents in a way. She is becoming much more dextrous with the scissors and also with tiny items.

Another thing that W and I like to do together is to watch the Shakespeare on CBeebies plays. Their plays usually pop up around Christmas time, but are also available at other times of the year. We watched A Midsummer Night’s Dream this week, which W absolutely loved. W doesn’t cope well with any mild threat on TV or in films at all, and these plays are brilliant as they are a gentle introduction to Shakespeare’s plays without being too fast-paced or scary.

On Tuesday, W wanted to spend her birthday money. When she bought the items, we spent some time working out how much of her money had been spent and how much was left. She paid for the items herself at the till.

On the way home, she was asking what my favourite animals are and then asked a lot of questions about tigers and how (and why) some types became extinct. She learned what the biggest and smallest types of tiger are and where they live.

J and W later played hide and seek, which W loves to do. She now hides completely for the others to find her, but does giggle when she is there!

All the children then played Charades together and W is learning how to demonstrate something in a way that others understand. She is working on it… for example, a plane is demonstrated by her jumping up and down and a vacuum cleaner is shown by V waving her hands above her head….. It is a work in progress!
But the point is that they had lots of fun trying to figure out what she was demonstrating…

The next day brought yet more playing – W and D have had a very calm and lovely time playing with their toys together many times this week and are learning now to cooperate during their play and to make things fair in terms of following one person’s rules of the game and then making sure that the other child can have a chance at playing by their rules too. Again, it is a work in progress, and because we are a blended family, the children are getting to know each others ways and preferences. It takes time, but I know we’ll get there and they are doing really, really well.

Topics covered: Maths (bricks in the wall), English (Shakespeare and reading names on parcels), Biology / geography (Tigers)

15th April 2018 – A birthday

W had her 5th birthday this week, so we had a great time seeing the grandparents and playing with new toys. She was lucky enough to get this Stephanie’s House Lego set (age 6+) and built it almost by herself. She showed good concentration and is now very good at rotating objects in her head to see where the Lego pieces might fit. A few days later, she built her new LEGO Minecraft set and then played with it afterwards, role-playing showing her minifigures around the new sets.

Building her new Minecraft set had spurred W on to play real Minecraft on her tablet, where she built some more of a house that she has been creating. I have to say that I am amazed at how quickly children can pick up the game and learn how to create things on it. I don’t let her use the multiplayer mode yet, but she is happy enough creating her own ‘world’ in the game so far.

I’m pleased that W plays with Minecraft Lego as well as Friends Lego. I need to point out that we do not do ‘boy’s toys’ and ‘girls’ toys’ in our house. Toys and clothes are not gendered here. The children are free to wear pink or blue or any other colour that they choose. They can play with any toys that are age appropriate (and are not guns) regardless of which gender they are marketed to (more information on this can be found here). I read a fantastic book, backed up by a great deal of research on the subject by Cordelia Fine, called Delusions of Gender. In it, she debunks ‘neuro-sexism’ and explores how society will have us believe that there are huge differences in male and female brains; and seeks the scientific proof to the contrary.

Another new birthday present that W received this week was this Disney Princess Heart Box, which she spent some time decorating. She then really wanted to paint this Galt Toys Tea Set. W enjoyed choosing the colours and styles that she wanted on each item. She liked it so much that a few days later, she went on to paint a couple of china chicks for us to have as Easter ornaments. They turned out great and are now part of the Easter box of plastic eggs and trinkets that we get out every year.

W, D and J all did some ‘work’ for me on my business when they wanted to. This is both educational and a great way for them to learn about the value of money. I have written more about the subject in my blog posts about pocket money and chores.

The next day, J, D and W all played together at a soft play centre. On the way there, W wanted to spot which bus was ours. She looked out for the correct numbers on the bus and found the right one in no time. She then spent a long time talking to J on the journey, and teaching him all she has learned over the last few weeks, showing that she has taken in a lot of information.

Later, all the children watched two videos together, as they needed to wind down after such a busy day. Whenever we watch a video, we have the subtitles on. The older one likes to read them to catch anything he may have missed (or to pick out inaccuracies), the middle one likes to read the words of the songs so that she can learn them, and it is helping W to be motivated to learn to read as well.
Three friends came to the house later in the week for an Easter egg hunt. My partner had set up clues for the children to follow to find eggs around the house and garden. D and J’s clues were written, and W’s were in words and pictures. They all did well to work out the answers and find their eggs. After much chocolate was eaten, they all played noisily in the park and the house and properly enjoyed their day! We had another social engagement later in the week when another friend came to the house to play and much fun was had again.

In addition to the planned play dates we had, there was also an impromptu social opportunity for W, when one of the trains that we traveled on this week was delayed, meaning a 3 hour journey for us. W spent the time playing with 4 other children (ages 9, 7, 5 and 3), sharing her toys and role-playing moving house, going to prison (!) and playing doctors, amongst other things. The other children loved playing with her and they all got on very well for the whole time we were travelling.

Back at home, W wanted to work on some activities in one of her magazines, so she read a few words of an Alphablocks story, even reading a couple of words without sounding them out first. She also matched some sticker shapes, followed dotted lines with her pen and cut out some shapes.

Since we are lucky enough to have all the children at home because of the school holidays, we visited Deen City Farm. There was lots to do and the children learned about what goats, sheep and cows eat. One of the goats ate a piece of the paper packet that the food was in and we had a discussion about what would happen to the packet and why goats eat things that they shouldn’t. They also learned the difference between herbivores’ teeth and carnivores’ teeth, since they noticed what shape the goats’ teeth were. We had a chance to pet rabbits and guinea pigs, and to ask lots of questions of the staff there.

We saw owls and W asked why the owl was awake in the daytime. She learned about how owls are bred and tamed, and how they are cared for. We then watched a riding lesson and then pooped in to see the rabbits and guinea pigs being cleaned out.

After looking at all the animals, it was time to play in the playground. Even though it was the school holidays, we managed to find another home educated child there to play with. W chatted to him and played with him on the slides and climbing frames.
D and W played catch at the bus stop on the journey home and then D later read her book to both W and J while we waited. W just loves being read to and loves books in general, so having D read to her benefits them both so much. We had one of those perfect parenting moments at that bus stop. You know, one of those moments where all the children are behaving perfectly and doing something very sweet while people look on and smile. It was definitely one of those times where I felt all smug (before the children’s grumpiness kicked in a few minutes later, but I won’t mention that…..).

Subjects covered:

Economics (business), Maths (receiving wages for ‘work’), Spatial skills (Lego, Minecraft), Art (pottery painting and decorating jewellery box), English, Biology (mammals’ teeth and animal characteristics), socialisation (friends visiting, meeting a new friend at the park, sibling play, extended family visiting). Technology (Minecraft).

8th April 2018 – The Big Bank

W has been very interested in money this week, so we decided to visit The Bank of England Museum. I love it there and, although it is a small museum, it is free entry and they have great activities for children, such as Easter Egg hunts.

There was lots to do and we started with looking at the different security features of banknotes, since W asked last week why people don’t just print more money when they run out. She learned about the Royal Mint and why it is important that money only comes from there. She got to use a UV light to show patterns on bank notes, which she loved.
In the museum, you have an opportunity to hold a gold bar and to try to lift it. W had a go (but couldn’t lift it as it weighed around 14kg – the same as her….). She asked why it was so heavy when it was so little, so we talked about density. There was also a fabulous display on the properties of gold and why it is so valuable.
After that, W learned what people did before money came into use, and also about the history of the Bank of England itself. She found some of it fascinating and engaging, then had a rest at one of the tables where some crafts were set out. She had a great time colouring-in and drawing too.
Next, it was time for the fun (and still educational) part – an Easter hunt around the museum, following clues to find certain things and answering questions about some items. We filled in a quiz as we went and got a chocolate egg as a great reward at the end. The staff were all lovely with her, especially when we realised that we had left her beloved teddy somewhere inside the museum. We searched everywhere, but had no luck. Eventually one of the porters helped us, even moving some exhibits to look behind them.

In the end, to W’s relief, Teddy was found and all was well with the world!

On the train home, W asked about the UV light that she had seen: what is it and why did it show patterns on the bank notes? We had a good long conversation UV light – eg how it fades fabrics, what it is etc. At this point, I found myself reflecting on the fact that school children don’t get as much of the ‘follow-up’ learning that W does, in that there isn’t time on the way back from a school trip for a child to ask so many questions of what they have seen. Sure, there is some time, but it is very short, considering that teaching staff are focussing on getting so many children from one place to another safely. I don’t know if it is different for other children, but my kids tend to learn so much more after an educational trip, rather than on it. There are usually additional questions for days afterwards, after they have had time to process what they saw or did.

Later in the week, W was lucky enough to be able to go on the London Eye. It was great for her to see the city from a different perspective and to have a chance to point out her favourite landmarks, which she loves to do.

When we travel, W loves to help me to find the correct train and platform and this is currently her main motivator for learning to read. She really wants to be able to find the right train on the display and to tell me which platform to go to. Aside from being a sweet thing to do, it is also a valuable life skill to have and I’m sure she will get to grips with it very soon. We keep looking at the displays together every time we get on a train.

When we got home, we spent some time building a Lego set. She is learning now that, although a build can take a long time, when she perseveres with it and finishes, she gets a brilliant toy to play with afterwards. Her building skills are great, so it doesn’t take her too long to put them together and she does really enjoy the end result.

W also noticed that she had some mail today. The Book Trust provide free books to all reception-aged children, so that includes home-educated children. W’s book had arrived, so we read it together. It is always lovely to have a parcel in the post that you weren’t expecting, and this was a lovely example.

The evening board game this week was mainly Charades For Kids and, as usual, we had bedtime stories every day.

[Topics covered: Science (UV light), Maths (denominations of money; what was used as currency before money and how it was added together), Geography (London’s skyline), English (reading books and departure boards), Spatial skills (Lego building)]